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nohalicanka.tk The Sixth The tipping point: how little things can make a big difference / by Malcolm. Editorial Reviews. nohalicanka.tk Review. "The best way to understand the dramatic Add Audible book to your download for just $ Deliver to your site or. PDF The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference The tipping point is that magic moment when an idea, trend, or social behavior crosses a.

A good example of the importance of context and environment in shaping human behavior is the Broken Window Hypothesis—the idea that cities can cut down in serious crime by preventing minor crimes like graffiti and public urination. Another important example of the importance of context is group size. Scientists have determined that groups of more than people tend to be less cooperative and close than groups of people or less—even an increase from people to people has big implications for the cooperativeness of the group.

Businesses like Gore Associates have been successful in part because they keep their office sizes capped at people. As a result, Gore employees know one another well, cooperate, and feel comfortable specializing in specific areas of the company. There are many potential applications of the three laws of social epidemics.

One potential application is marketing and advertising. Airwalk was successful in large part because it was able to stay informed about new trends and popular ideas, and then incorporate these ideas into its commercials and ads.

Another potential application of the discussion of social epidemics is the trend of teen smoking in the United States, which bears a lot of resemblance to the teen suicide epidemic in Micronesia.

In other words, the teenage smoking epidemic is partly the result of powerful Salesmen who persuade teenagers to smoke. The question becomes, then, if the government wants to reduce teen smoking, should it try to reduce the stickiness of smoking or try to change Salesmen to persuade teenagers not to smoke? What caused this decline? Long-term trends such as reducing drug use, aging populations and improving the economy could explain a gradual decline, but not the effect that made crime plummet so fast.

For Gladwell , the sudden drop can be attributed to other factors. One of them was the cleaning of the graffiti in the subway system. Instead of using cops to stop violent crime, resources were allocated to remove graffiti from the subway and keep it always clean. If a train was vandalized, it was repainted the next day.

It took nearly 5 years to clear all the trains. The graffiti were a symbol of a city in collapse.

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When people saw reconstruction and reorganization, the battle against vandalism was won, and this impacted on the morale and safety of people using public transportation. Malcolm Gladwell appropriates this concept and points out that this distribution is quite common in the pattern of contamination of a virus.

In many cases, the proportion is even more extreme: A crew member of a Canadian airline was mapped by several studies as the focal point of the contamination. By having sex with more than 2, people, this patient has greatly accelerated transmission and has been assigned up to 40 transmissions which have resulted in thousands of second level contaminations.

Similarly, in the case of social epidemics , we find that there is typically a small group of people who are responsible for speeding up the transmission rate. Social epidemics work the same way.

They are guided by the efforts of a handful of exceptional people. In this case, they are not differentiated by their sexual appetite but by how sociable, connected, or influential they are among their companions.

For Malcolm Gladwell, three characteristics are necessary to bring about the Tipping Point: For an idea to spread, the message sender is the most important point. Gladwell places the emitters into three groups:. The content of the idea itself, its message, is also important in predicting its ability to spread.

It should be easy to remember, simple and thus easy to disseminate. To settle, a message has to be interesting. Normally, improving something — even a small detail — in the way the message is presented is what makes all the difference.

One of the examples cited by Gladwell is a tetanus vaccination campaign at a US university. In this case, research was done to see if a strong material, portraying the effects of tetanus with strong photos and text, was more efficient than lighter material.

In the case, it was concluded, after testing, that the most alarming information left students more interested in preventing the disease. In this case, this message had a low sticky factor and did not go forward. A map of the campus, with the location of the vaccination posts, which made the content more familiar and brought the vaccine to the student world.

When the advice is practical and personal, it is easy to remember.

Power of context means that we can change our attitudes depending on the context in which we are inserted at the moment. Small or close-knit groups have the potential to create and raise epidemics at high speeds, after all, the environment influences more than our standard behaviors and thoughts.

There is no use having Communicators, Experts, and content with a high sticky factor if the context does not contribute to the dissemination. If it is not in the right season, for example, a Christmas story will not be spread as much as if we were in December. In an experiment called Stanford Prison, made by Stanford University, twenty-four healthy men were selected to spend two weeks in a sham prison where each of them was assigned to serve as a guard or prisoner.

In this experiment, the simulated guards became sadistic and intolerant, dramatically damaging the prisoners. The experience had to be canceled immediately. Despite being a simulated prison with acted roles, the participants became completely different people, and their behaviors were completely altered.

Often small changes can start major epidemics which are sensitive to the conditions and circumstances of the time and place in which they occur. Gladwell notes that the unique content of the novel appealed strongly to reading groups of middle-aged women in Northern California, and that these women were uniquely well-positioned to catapult the book to national success as a result of an informal campaign of recommendations and advocacy.

Gladwell also remarks upon the unusual properties tied to the size of social groups.

The tipping point : how little things can make a big difference

This concept has been exploited by a number of corporations that use it as the foundation of their organizational structures and marketing campaigns. The brand was originally geared towards the skateboarding subculture of Southern California, but sought to transcend this niche market and attain national name recognition.

However, as a cost-cutting measure, Airwalk eventually began providing all of its distributors with a single line of shoes. Chapter 7: Case Study: Suicide, Smoking, and the Search for the Unsticky Cigarette In another case study, Gladwell discusses the relationship between a sudden, alarming rise in suicide among adolescent males in Micronesia and the persistent problem of teen cigarette use in the United States. In both instances, teens were induced to become involved in potentially lethal experimentation.

Gladwell asserts that both trends were predicated upon two main factors.

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First, teenagers are inherently, perhaps even genetically predisposed to imitate others and try on new behaviors and attitudes during adolescence. Second, the types of the people who are more likely to engage in dramatic, easily romanticized behavior such as early cigarette smoking or suicide are also more likely to be those that others tend to gravitate toward and seek to emulate. Gladwell also considers the origins and implications of the curiously large middle ground that exists between those who abstain altogether from potentially dangerous activities, and those who engage in them in a consistently low-level manner.

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Gladwell suggests that infrequent teenage experimentation with drugs or smoking should not be regarded with hysteria, but rather, should be accepted as inevitable and is, in all likelihood, benign.As CEO and co-owner of the company Talent and Wellness Management, she developed and presented an array of workshops in the people skills arena, for the corporate and tertiary sectors.

I particularly enjoyed the rules of epidemics and the description of the people who help trends spread. The final rule for understanding epidemics is the principle of context.

This concept has been exploited by a number of corporations that use it as the foundation of their organizational structures and marketing campaigns. They consider that crime results from disorder, that is, a dirty and disorganized environment passes on a message of permissiveness, indiscipline, lack of control, which encourages and authorizes transgressive behavior.

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He cites the fact that a number of New York City agencies began to make decisions based on the Broken Windows theory, which held that minor, unchecked signs of deterioration in a neighborhood or community could, over time, result in major declines in the quality of living. Gladwell identifies a number of examples of past trends and events that hinged on the influence and involvement of Connectors, Mavens, and Salesmen at key moments in their development.

What caused this decline? However, Gladwell points out that groups of certain sizes and certain types can often be uniquely conducive to achieving the tipping point.

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