INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY PDF

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Topics. Page. 1. Introduction to Biology. 1. 2. Structure and Nature of living Cell. 3. Cell Division. 4. Division of Labour in Multicellular Plants: Tissue and. 1 | INTRODUCTION TO. BIOLOGY. Figure This NASA image is a composite of several satellite-based views of Earth. To make the whole-Earth image, NASA. NPTEL – Basic Courses – Basic Biology. Joint initiative of IITs and IISc – Funded by MHRD. Page 1 of Lecture 1: Basic Biology: A Brief Introduction.


Introduction To Biology Pdf

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In its broadest sense, biology is the study of living things—the science of biology, you must first understand the nature of science. The basic Introduction to. Biology. ○ From the greek word βίος = life. ○ Timeline: ○ – discovery of bacteria. ○ – Darwin's natural selection. ○ – Mendel's laws. but not limited to PDF and HTML) and on every physical printed page the openly licensed textbooks for introductory college and Advanced Placement®.

Scientists call this a hypothesis. Scientific experiments are also concerned with isolating the variables. A good science experiment does not simultaneously test several variables, but rather a single variable that can be measured against a control.

Introduction: Biology of the Plant Cuticle

Scientific controlled experiments are situations where all factors are the same between two test subjects, except for the single experimental variable. Consider a commonly conducted science fair experiment. Sandy wants to test the effect of gangsta rap music on pea plant growth.

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She plays loud rap music 24 hours a day to a series of pea plants grown under light, and watered every day. At the end of her experiment she concludes gangsta rap is conducive to plant growth.

Her teacher grades her project very low, citing the lack of a control group for the experiment. Sandy returns to her experiment, but this time she has a separate group of plants under the same conditions as the rapping plants, but with soothing Led Zeppelin songs playing.

She comes to the same conclusion as before, but now has a basis for comparison. Her teacher gives her project a better grade. Theories Contributing to Modern Biology Back to Top Modern biology is based on several great ideas, or theories: The Cell Theory The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Gene Theory Homeostasis Robert Hooke , one of the first scientists to use a microscope to examine pond water, cork and other things, referred to the cavities he saw in cork as " cells ", Latin for chambers.

Mattias Schleiden in concluded all plant tissues consisted of cells. In , Theodore Schwann came to a similar conclusion for animal tissues. Rudolf Virchow, in , combined the two ideas and added that all cells come from pre-existing cells, formulating the Cell Theory.

Thus there is a chain-of-existence extending from your cells back to the earliest cells, over 3.

The cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and that those cells have arisen from pre-existing cells. Figure 1. While a model may seem a small thing, their development of the DNA model fostered increased understanding of how genes work. Image from the Internet. In , American scientist James Watson and British scientist Francis Crick developed the model for deoxyribonucleic acid DNA , a chemical that had then recently been deduced to be the physical carrier of inheritance.

Crick hypothesized the mechanism for DNA replication and further linked DNA to proteins , an idea since referred to as the central dogma. Information from DNA "language" is converted into RNA ribonucleic acid "language" and then to the "language" of proteins.

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The central dogma explains the influence of heredity DNA on the organism proteins. Homeostasis is the maintainence of a dynamic range of conditions within which the organism can function. Temperature, pH, and energy are major components of this concept. Theromodynamics is a field of study that covers the laws governing energy transfers, and thus the basis for life on earth.

Two major laws are known: the conservation of matter and energy , and entropy. These will be discussed in more detail in a later chapter. The universe is composed of two things: matter atoms, etc. These first three theories are very accepted by scientists and the general public.

The theory of evolution is well accepted by scientists and most of the general public. However, it remains a lightening rod for school boards, politicians, and television preachers. Much of this confusion results from what the theory says and what it does not say. Development of the Theory of Evolution Back to Top Modern biology is based on several unifying themes, such as the cell theory, genetics and inheritance, Francis Crick's central dogma of information flow, and Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by natural selection.

In this first unit we will examine these themes and the nature of science. The Ancient Greek philosopher Anaxiamander B.

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The classical science of their time was observational rather than experimental. Another ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle developed his Scala Naturae, or Ladder of Life, to explain his concept of the advancement of living things from inanimate matter to plants, then animals and finally man.

This concept of man as the "crown of creation" still plagues modern evolutionary biologists See Gould, , for a more detailed discussion. Post-Aristotlean "scientists" were constrained by the prevailing thought patterns of the Middle Ages -- the inerrancy of the biblical book of Genesis and the special creation of the world in a literal six days of the hour variety.

Archbishop James Ussher of Ireland, in the late 's calculated the age of the earth based on the geneologies from Adam and Eve listed in the biblical book of Genesis. According to Ussher's calculations, the earth was formed on October 22, B.

These calculations were part of Ussher's book, History of the World. The chronology he developed was taken as factual, and was even printed in the front pages of bibles. Ussher's ideas were readily accepted, in part because they posed no threat to the social order of the times; comfortable ideas that would not upset the linked applecarts of church and state. Figure 2. Archbishop James Ussher.

Introduction to Biology

Often new ideas must "come out of left field", appearing as wild notions, but in many cases prompting investigation which may later reveal the "truth". Ussher's ideas were comfortable, the Bible was viewed as correct, therefore the earth must be only years old. Geologists had for some time doubted the "truth" of a 5, year old earth. Da Vinci concluded it took , years to form some nearby rock deposits. Galileo, convicted heretic for his contention that the Earth was not the center of the Universe, studied fossils evidence of past life and concluded that they were real and not inanimate artifacts.

James Hutton , regarded as the Father of modern geology, developed the Theory of Uniformitarianism , the basis of modern geology and paleontology.

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According to Hutton's work, certain geological processes operated in the past in much the same fashion as they do today, with minor exceptions of rates, etc. Each exam is submitted electronically on an answer form. Due to the complexity of preparation, these exams will not be returned to individual students. All submitted forms will be computer analyzed and compared for completeness, correct answers and unlikely similarities between different answer forms. Questionable "cloned" submission forms with duplicate answer patterns will be carefully scrutinized and referred to the Life Sciences Department Chair for further review.

There is no required textbook, only a recommended text listed in the syllabus below.

All of the information necessary to answer the exam questions is on-line at the Wayne's Word website. Searching for answers to questions requires a considerable amount of reading through numerous pages on Wayne's Word. Although there are suggested deadlines for each exam to keep everyone on task, the only critical date is the final deadline at the end of the semester. The precise final deadline date and time will be announced each semester.

Students may submit the exam forms at their own pace; however, it is preferable to follow the suggested deadlines in order to avoid getting behind. There is minimal student-teacher interaction in this course. Hint pages are provided for each exam that include useful hyperlinks and other helpful information. These pages are continuously updated by the instructor.This is still a preferred method for identification of.

However, it cannot undo the da mage. If you start to.

One way to represent geological time. Another ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle developed his Scala Naturae, or Ladder of Life, to explain his concept of the advancement of living things from inanimate matter to plants, then animals and finally man.

The Modern View of the Age of the Earth Back to Top Radiometric age assignments based on the rates of decay of radioactive isotopes , not discovered until the late 19th century, suggest the earth is over 4. Image from the Internet. It can be very broad and focus on details regarding the entire planet or it may be very specific and study microscopic structures such as bacteria or DNA. The toxin has a great ability to damage the heart and central nervous s ystem, and can.

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