LEARN PIPING ENGINEERING PDF

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Piping Engineering is a discipline that is rarely taught in a university setting, but is extremely . Pipe stress analysis is only one portion of piping engineering. Here's a presentation on piping engineering in PDF format, now available for all. This presentation our EPC industry. This presentation covers various aspects of piping engineering like: Learn pipe marking standards. In some jurisdictions, a Professional Engineer must design pressure piping. . Piping codes developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Learn Piping Engineering Pdf

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Mainly, this presentation covers the pipes and fittings of piping system. It is useful to learn and easily guided to beginner of piping engineers. involved in generating piping codes, design factors depending . For process engineers, the most important parameter for hydraulic sizing is the pipe .. material attributes of pipe, fittings and manual valves necessary for the needs of both. PIPING ENGINEERING. DESIGN TRAINING. Learn from the expert. Focus Projects and Consultants. Chennai. FOCUS PROJECTS AND CONSULTANTS. No.

Liquid-Solid slurry 4. Gas-solid mixture 5. Liquid-gas mixture 6. Gas-Liquid-solid mixture In a maze of piping, flow distribution plays a major role in piping design. The following formulas are commonly used to calculate the Pressure drop and the pumping power required for a hollow cylindrical horizontal pipe carrying a liquid.

In between the values of and , the flow could be either laminar or turbulent depending upon several factors. List of insulation material: Ends are beveled tapered edge.

Free Pipe Marketing Guide

Ends are having tapered edge. Two pipes are joined by using thread. Tapered grooves are also prepared. Bends are usually made, using a bending machine, from straight pipes. Elbows are of the following types: Elbows of the following types are also available: There are about two types of reducers. They are: Concentric reducer will be used for vertical and Pump Discharge Piping. Eccentric reducer will be used for horizontal and Pump Suction Piping. For horizontal piping, flat on Bottom for maintaining the elevation in the Rack Piping.

For Pump Suction, flat on top to avoid the cavitation. TEES Tees are used to distribute to collect flow. Tees are of the following types: Branches are made from straight pipes by machining and welding.

The y are used to collect and distribute flow. The pressure drop in a y-piece is less than that of a comparable tee. Safety valve stubs are designed to with stand the bending moments imposed on them by safety valve blowing jet reaction, over and above the internal pressure load. A flange will be consisting of 2 flanges with gasket in between them.

Orifice flange is used to measure the amount of pressure drop through the orifice plate. There will be two flanges with gasket in between them. The external or mating surface for two flanges will be flat face. Using a flat face flange will assure full surface contact, thereby reducing the possibility of cracking the softer cast iron.

With shallow grooves attached into raised surface, this flange face assures a positive grip with the gasket. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests in a deep groove cut into the flange face. The donut-shaped ring can be oval or octagonal in design. As the bolts are tightened, the metal ring is compressed, creating a tight seal.

The ring and groove design actually uses internal pressures to enhance the sealing capacity of the connecting flanges. Using a gasket material softer than two adjoining flanges is an excellent way to eliminate the possibility of a fluid escape. Gaskets can be made of materials such as asbestos, rubber, neoprene, Teflon, lead, or copper. Flanges are designed to match the bolt circle and bolt hole dimensions of other flanges that are of the same and bolt diameter and pressure rating. Bolts are available in two types, machine or stud.

Machine bolts have a "head" on one end and threads on the other. Stud bolts have threads throughout their entire length and require the use of two nuts.

Valves can Control not Only the flow but also the rate, the Volume, the Pressure and the direction of a fluid within a pipe. STEM Stem can be moved manually or to be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically under remote or Automatic control or mechanically by weighted lever, Spring etc. Stress of a material is the internal resistance per unit area to the deformation caused by applied load.

Strain is unit deformation under applied load. It is a curve in which unit load or stress is plotted against unit elongation, technically known as strain. Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures, changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity.

Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of stress analysis. The piping engineers can provide protection against some of these failure modes by performing stress analysis according to piping codes.

Failure is due to excessive plastic deformation. Body undergoes plastic deformation under slip action of grains o Yielding at Elevated temperature: After slippage, material re-crystallizes and hence yielding continues without increasing load.

This phenomenon is known as creep. Body fails without undergoing yielding. Occurs in brittle materials. Due to cyclic loading initially a small crack is developed which grows after each cycle and results in sudden failure. The failure theories most commonly used in describing the strength of piping systems are: These are developed by the imposed loading and are necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments of the piping system.

Primary stresses are not self-limiting. These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a structure. These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements. Secondary stresses are self-limiting. Unlike loading condition of secondary stress which causes distortion, peak stresses cause no significant distortion. Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure.

The longitudinal stress due to internal pressure. Bending stress is zero at the neutral axis of the pipe. The hoop stress varies throughout the pipe wall. Shear Stresses tend to cause adjacent planes of the pipe slip against each other.

These can be divided into two categories based on the duration of loading. These loads are expected to be present throughout the plant operation. These loads are present at infrequent intervals during plant operation.

These are loads due to displacements of piping. Examples are a chemical plant, petroleum refinery, loading terminal, natural gas processing plant, bulk plant, compounding plant and tank farm. The loadings required to be considered are pressure, weight live and dead loads , impact, wind, earthquake-induced horizontal forces, vibration discharge reactions, thermal expansion and contraction, temperature gradients, anchor movements. The governing equations are as follows: Eccentric reducer will be used for horizontal and Pump Suction Piping.

For horizontal piping, flat on Bottom for maintaining the elevation in the Rack Piping. For Pump Suction, flat on top to avoid the cavitation.

TEES Tees are used to distribute to collect flow. Tees are of the following types: formed tees, forged and machined tees, unequal tees and pregnant tees. Branches are made from straight pipes by machining and welding. The y are used to collect and distribute flow. The pressure drop in a y-piece is less than that of a comparable tee.

Piping Engineering

END COVERS End covers are of the following types: flat end cover, hemi-spherical end cover, tori-spherical end cover, semi -ellipsoidal end cover and tori-conical end cover.

Safety valve stubs are designed to with stand the bending moments imposed on them by safety valve blowing jet reaction, over and above the internal pressure load.

Orifice flange is used to measure the amount of pressure drop through the orifice plate. There will be two flanges with gasket in between them.

The external or mating surface for two flanges will be flat face. Using a flat face flange will assure full surface contact, thereby reducing the possibility of cracking the softer cast iron. With shallow grooves attached into raised surface, this flange face assures a positive grip with the gasket. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests in a deep groove cut into the flange face. The donut-shaped ring can be oval or octagonal in design.

As the bolts are tightened, the metal ring is compressed, creating a tight seal. The ring and groove design actually uses internal pressures to enhance the sealing capacity of the connecting flanges.

Using a gasket material softer than two adjoining flanges is an excellent way to eliminate the possibility of a fluid escape. Gaskets can be made of materials such as asbestos, rubber, neoprene, Teflon, lead, or copper. Flanges are designed to match the bolt circle and bolt hole dimensions of other flanges that are of the same and bolt diameter and pressure rating. Bolts are available in two types, machine or stud.

Machine bolts have a "head" on one end and threads on the other. Stud bolts have threads throughout their entire length and require the use of two nuts. Valves can Control not Only the flow but also the rate, the Volume, the Pressure and the direction of a fluid within a pipe. STEM Stem can be moved manually or to be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically under remote or Automatic control or mechanically by weighted lever, Spring etc.

Piping Stress analysis is a term applied to calculations, which address the static and dynamic loading resulting from the effects of gravity, temperature changes, internal and external pressures, changes in fluid flow rate and seismic activity. Codes and standards establish the minimum requirements of stress analysis. The piping engineers can provide protection against some of these failure modes by performing stress analysis according to piping codes.

This phenomenon is known as creep. Note: maximum or minimum normal stress is called principal stress. Primary stresses are not self-limiting.

These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements. Secondary stresses are self-limiting. Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure.

What is The Difference Between Piping and Pipeline. Piping Vs Pipeline

The longitudinal stress due to internal pressure. Bending stress is zero at the neutral axis of the pipe. The hoop stress varies throughout the pipe wall. Shear Stresses tend to cause adjacent planes of the pipe slip against each other. Examples are a chemical plant, petroleum refinery, loading terminal, natural gas processing plant, bulk plant, compounding plant and tank farm. The loadings required to be considered are pressure, weight live and dead loads , impact, wind, earthquake-induced horizontal forces, vibration discharge reactions, thermal expansion and contraction, temperature gradients, anchor movements.

The thickness of the pipe used in calculating SL shall be the nominal thickness minus mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allowance. The sum of the longitudinal loads due pressure, weight and other sustained loads and of stresses produced by occasional loads such as earthquake or wind shall not exceed 1. The loads can be classified into three categories.

They are primary loads, secondary loads and occasional loads. The response of the piping to various loads is different. The primary load is also known as sustained load. The primary loads are due to self-weight of the piping, its contents, insulation, refractory, inner casing, outer casing, internal pressure and external pressure. The secondary loads are due to temperature change and relative settlement of foundations.

The occasional loads are due to wind, earth quake, water hammer, steam hammer, safety valves blowing jet reactions, surge load, blast load and accidental loads.

If the piping is not provided with adequate supports, it will be over-stressed and excessively deform. Over-stressing will cause premature failure. Excessive deformation will impair the performance of piping. Even though, it allows the horizontally mounted pipe to move vertically, it prevents the vertically and horizontally mounted pipe from any side movements.

REST This is a support in the vertical direction only upwards , it represents the support under the Flanges and valves. Constant effort spring hangers are usually incorporated for vertical thermal movements in excess of 50mm.The formula for calculating thermal expansion: Having made this point, it is fair to say that most PFDs convey very similar information.

Graphitic Corrosion: Upcoming SlideShare. Valves can Control not Only the flow but also the rate, the Volume, the Pressure and the direction of a fluid within a pipe.

The external or mating surface for two flanges will be flat face.

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