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If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future. Each combination of a textbook and supplemental items receives a separate ISBN. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book.

When a bookstore attempts to track down used copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the copies of the textbook. Legislation at state and federal levels seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all components separately.

No data suggests that this is in fact true.

However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. Campus downloadback[ edit ] As for downloadback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives.

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If a professor chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual instructor, bookstores often download the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid. If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new retail price, according to the GAO report.

If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book company then resells the book to another college bookstore. At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the respective companies to continue to operate.

Student to student sales[ edit ] Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in downloading the required books.

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This may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the college bookstore for the same titles. Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of facilitating such trade.

These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale and browse for those they wish to acquire. Also, at the US Air Force Academy , it is possible to e-mail entire specific classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist. Student online marketplaces[ edit ] Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks.

Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a downloader to order, making the use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks. Unlike campus downloadback and online book, students are unlikely to sell all their books to one downloader using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books individually.

Online book downloaders[ edit ] Online book downloaders download textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit.

Like online marketplaces, online book downloaders operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books even when campus "downloadback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to sell and receive a price quote or offer. These online book downloaders often offer "free shipping" which in actuality is built into the offer for the book , and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source.

Because online book downloaders are downloading books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces.

However, their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service. Some even claim that downloading used textbooks online and selling them to online book downloaders has a lower total cost than even textbook rental services.

Textbook exchanges[ edit ] In response to escalating textbook prices, limited competition, and to provide a more efficient system to connect downloaders and sellers together, online textbook exchanges were developed.

Most of today's sites handle downloader and seller payments, and usually deduct a small commission only after the sale is completed. According to textbook author Henry L.

Roediger and Wadsworth Publishing Company senior editor Vicki Knight , the used textbook market is illegitimate, and entirely to blame for the rising costs of textbooks. As methods of "dealing with this problem", he recommends making previous editions of textbooks obsolete, binding the textbook with other materials, and passing laws to prevent the sale of used books.

Obviously, this idea is completely opposed to the millennia-old tradition of the sale of used books , and would make that entire industry illegal. E-textbooks[ edit ] Another alternative to save money and obtaining the materials you are required are e-textbooks. The article "E books rewrite the rules of education" states that, alternately to spending a lot of money on textbooks, you can download an e-textbook at a small amount of the cost.

With the growth of digital applications for iPhone, and gadgets like the site site, e-textbooks are not an innovation, but have been "gaining momentum". Some stores use a hybrid of both methods, opting for in-store selections of the most popular books and the online option for more obscure titles or books they consider too risky to put in the rental system. Textbook sharing[ edit ] Another method to help students save money that is coming up is called Textbooks Sharing.

Using textbook sharing the students share the physical textbook with other students, and also the cost of the book is divided among the users of the textbook. Main article: Open textbook The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks. Currently, some open textbooks have been funded with non-profit investment.

The other challenge involves the reality of publishing, which is that textbooks with good sales and profitability subsidize the creation and publication of low demand but believed to be necessary textbooks.

On the other hand, independent open textbook authoring and publishing models are developing. Most notably, the startup publisher Flat World Knowledge already has dozens of college-level open textbooks that are used by more than institutions in 44 countries.

Mobi site , PDF download, etc. Flat World Knowledge compensates its authors with royalties on these sales. However, in January, Flat World Knowledge announced their financial model could no longer sustain their free-to-read options for students.

CK FlexBooks are free to use online and offer formats suitable for use on portable personal reading devices and computers - both online and offline. Formats for both iPad and site are offered. School districts may select a title as is or customize the open textbook to meet local instructional standards. School districts could easily negotiate even lower prices for bulk downloads to be printed in their own communities.

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Teacher's editions are available for educators and parents. Titles have been authored by various individuals and organizations and are vetted for quality prior to inclusion in the CK catalog. An effort is underway to map state educational standards correlations. International market pricing[ edit ] Similar to the issue of reimportation of pharmaceuticals into the U.

Retailers and publishers have expressed concern about the re-importation of lower-priced textbooks from international locations. Specifically, they cited the ability students have to download books from online distribution channels outside the United States at lower prices, which may result in a loss of sales for U.

Additionally, the availability of lower-priced textbooks through these channels has heightened distrust and frustration among students regarding textbook prices, and college stores find it difficult to explain why their textbook prices are higher, according to the National Association of College Stores. Retailers and publishers have also been concerned that some U.

While the Supreme Court decision Quality King v. L'anza protects the reimportation of copyrighted materials under the first-sale doctrine , textbook publishers have still attempted to prevent the U.

The authors often getting half-royalties instead of full-royalties, minus the charges for returned books from bookstores. Cost distribution[ edit ] According to the National Association of College Stores, the entire cost of the book is justified by expenses, with typically The store and publisher amounts are slightly higher for Canada. Tell the Publisher!

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Main article: Open textbook The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks. Textbook publishing in the U. The Government Accountability Office report on college textbooks said that since the s, textbook and supply prices have risen twice the rate of inflation in the past two decades[ citation needed ]. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements to the content.

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